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Acids (Brønsted acids) are compounds with a mobile proton; they can protonate other compounds. Most compounds with protons can behave as acids. Some of them are very weak, such as alkanes. There are also very strong acids, like some sulfonic acids. There are some acids that are often used in organic synthesis to catalyze reactions, remove protective groups, and make salts with ...
Antiviral drugs are chemicals used for the treatment of viral infections. Many of them are nucleosides which get phosphorylated inside cells, or nucleotide prodrugs that are converted into nucleotides inside cells. The nucleotides interact with viral enzymes to block replication. Other antiviral types are enzyme inhibitors exist. For example, HIV protease inhibitors block processing of cap...
Drying agents are widely used in chemistry to remove moisture from solvents and gases. They can either physically sorb water, like silica or ceolites, or chemically bind it like anhydrous salts. Some drying agents are very reactive; for example, metal hydrides are used to remove traces of water from almost anhydrous solvents. Drying agents are sometimes added to reaction mixtures to remove w...
Fluorination of organic molecules is a complex task that is achieved using fluorination reagents. A number of reagents exist to introduce fluorine atoms into molecules. Some of them are electrophilic fluorinating reagents (molecular fluorine equivalents), others are nucleophilic; some reagents are fluorodeoxygenating, i.e. allow to replace hydroxyl or carbonyl groups with fluorine atoms.
Various metal complexes are being extensively used for homogeneous catalysis. The catalytic properties of the complexes are strongly affected by ligands that surround metal atoms. For example, a complex of palladium with tri(tert-butyl)phosphine can activate aryl chlorides for Sonogashira coupling - something that triphenylphosphine complex cannot do. A number of ligands, mostly of phosphine na...
A number of metal catalysts containing different metals, and various ligands have been designed to perform a plethora of synthetic transformations. They include catalytic hydrogenation, cross coupling, carbonylation, olefin metathesis, and many other reactions. Our selection of useful catalysts is listed on this page.
Nucleosides are natural and synthetic compounds containing nucleobase (usually a heterocycle) attached to a sugar moiety. Natural nucleobases are adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine, uridine, and some minor encountered in RNA and DNA. Natural sugars are usually ribose or deoxyribose. A plenty of synthetic nucleosides is known with non-natural nucleobases (like ribavirin) or sug...
Modern oligonucleotide synthesis almost exclusively uses phosphoramidite chemistry. It requires to use phosphoramidite monomers (containing dimethoxytrityl, Dmt, protective group), modifier solid support (controlled pore glass, CPG, or polystyrene, with attached reactive monomers), activators (usually tetrazoles), capping reagents to acylate non-reacted hydroxyls of the growing chain, oxidant...
Bases are widely used in organic synthesis for the deprotonation, and scavenging acids. There is a number of organic bases used in synthesis, ranging from mild ones like pyridine to very strong like phosphazenes. Bases are used in alkylations and acylations, elimination reactions, isomerizations, protective group removal, and catalysis. Most organic bases are nitrogen compounds like ami...
Peptide coupling reagents are used for the activation of carboxy group for its subsequent coupling with amine groups with the formation of amide (peptide) bond. Although often used for peptide synthesis, these coupling reagents are not limited to it, and are often used for the formation of amide bonds in complex molecules, when traditional methods like chloroanhydride acylations are not enough ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are compounds containg several aromatic rings fused together. Simplest compound of this class is naphthalene, but there are PAHs with much more cycles. These compounds possess fluorescence. Some PAHs are notorious carcinogens, such as benzo[a]pyrene. Others are used as luminophores, such as anthracene derivatives. PAHs containing many rings are calle...
Multistep syntheses often include transformations that are not tolerated by all functional groups present in a molecule. These groups should be blocked by protective groups prior to reaction. After it, they can be removed. There is a large number of protective groups for carbonyl, carboxyl, hydroxyl, amine, thiol, and many other groups. A selection of reagents for functional group protection is...
Reducing agents are widely used in organic synthesis for the interconversion of functional groups. Different reagents have different reducing power. For example, lithium aluminium hydride (LAH), one of the most powerful reductants, can convert esters to alcohols, something that sodium borohydride (a milder reductant) usually cannot do. Reductants are used to convert alkynes to alkenes and&...
Chemical reactions are often carried out in solutions. This is a list of compounds that are often used as solvents. Solvents are generally divided into polar and non-polar. Polar solvents are further classified as protic and aprotic. Non-polar solvents are hydrocarbons like hexane and toluene. Polar protic solvents are alcohols; examples of aprotic solvents are DMF, DMSO, and acetonitrile. ...
Alkyl, aryl, vinyl sulfonates are often used as intermediates in organic synthesis. Alkyl sulfonates such as tosylates and mesylates readily undergo nucleophilic substitution reactions giving rise to alkyl halides, azides (and subsequently amines), ethers. They are useful for some C-alkylation reactions. Aryl- and vinylsulfonates, such as triflates, undergo palladium catalyzed cross co...